What is the difference between targeted groups and final beneficiaries?
The targeted
groups and final beneficiaries :
It is important to clarify that identifying the direct
beneficiaries of the project will only be possible after preparing the logframe
and completing all activities, indicators and target number for every indicator
and activity. There is a fundamental difference between final beneficiaries of
the project and the targeted groups who have a real and direct effect on the
beneficiaries.
Targeted
groups :
Targeted groups are the groups responsible for the problem.
These groups are being targeted due to their direct effect on the
beneficiaries.
For example, teachers, fathers and mothers have a direct impact on students or children; similarly, workers in health facilities have a direct impact on patients.
Beneficiaries :
Beneficiaries are the affected people by the problem and for
them, the project is planned.
Characteristics 
Targeted groups 
Beneficiaries 
Impact 
Cause of the problem 
Affected by the problem 
Number 
Specific groups, limited in number can be easily calculated to know
the targeted number 
Large in number and equations are needed to know the final
beneficiaries 
Question 
What? Who? 
Why? For whom? 
Level 
Project outputs 
Project outcome 
Measurement 
Monitoring 
Evaluation 
Comparison between the targeted groups and the beneficiaries
How to
calculate the targeted groups
While writing the project proposal, the targeted groups are
calculated in a very easy way. For example in case we want to calculate the
number of health personnel we want to train, first we agree on the number of
trainings that will be carried out and the number of people in each activity,
the total will be the number of trainees.
Example:
We know that training in Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) means to train 24 trainees according the standards of the ministry of health and is followed by all the working organizations like WHO and UNICEF. So if we want to conduct one training only in the project, we will target 24 persons only. Then we expect that the 24 persons will be 12 male health workers of doctors and nurses, 12 female health workers of doctors, nurses and midwives. Therefore in the logframe we put the indicator as follows:
How to
calculate the beneficiaries
All donors agreed that beneficiaries’ identification should
be based on age and sex in the project proposals and reports issued. In
order to calculate the number of beneficiaries in projects that provide
services for all people in large numbers, we have to use an equation to
calculate the beneficiaries as follows:
Indicator 
Target 

# of health workers to be trained in Integrated Management of Childhood
Illness ( IMCI ) 
Men 
Women 
Boys 
Girls 
Total 
12 
12 


24 
According to sex 
According to age 

Males 
49% 
Men ( over 18 ) 
40% 
Boys ( younger than 18) 
60% 
females 
51% 
Women ( over 18 ) 
40% 
Girls ( younger than 18) 
60% 
The percentage differs from one country to another according
to the general population census and the distribution of population pyramid.
Because the donors require clear identification of the
expected number of beneficiaries or the targeted groups in every project
proposal, we need to learn the ways to calculate these numbers and
distribute them in every related activity or indicator, as well as in problem
assessment, outcome and outputs.
Example:
We will support 10 health facilities that provide primary
health care, as well as mother and child care services for 12 months. In order to
calculate the expected number of beneficiaries, we do the following:
·
Assume that every health
facility will provide health services for 20 people per day.
·
Assume that the health
facility will work for 22 days a month.
So we have:
·
The number of beneficiaries
(males / females) in a month:
20 people × 22 days= 440 people per month
·
The number of beneficiaries
(males / females) in all targeted health facilities per month:
440 people × 10 facilities= 4400 people in
a month in all facilities
·
The total of beneficiaries
(males / females) in all health facilities in 12 months:
4400 people × 12 months= 52800 people in 12
months in all facilities.
So the total expected number of beneficiaries (Males / females) is 52800 people.
In order for us to put
this number in the logframe, we need to distribute the number according to sex
and age into men, women, boys and girls. In this case, we will have to use an
equation to distribute the beneficiaries in the example above as the following:
Number of men= total x male percentage x (over 18 years percentage)52800 × 0.49
× 0.40=
10349
Number of women=
total ×
female percentage × over 18 years percentage
52800 × 0.51
× 0.40=
10771
Number of boys= total
×
male percentage × under 18 years percentage
52800 × 0.49
×
0.60= 15523
Number of girls=total
×
female percentage × under 18 years percentage
52800 × 0.51 × 0.60= 16157
So, we put the indicator in the logframe as follows:
Indicator 
Target 

Men 
Women 
Boys 
Girls 
total 

# of beneficiaries in all targeted health facilities 
10349 
10771 
15523 
16157 
52800 
In case you are planning to implement an activity that
targets pregnant women like providing pregnant care services via targeted
health facilities, you will need to know the number of pregnant women who will
be provided with services in the targeted areas and they are part of the total
number mentioned in the above example (52800)
To know the expected number of pregnant women who will
benefit from the service, we do the following:
·
Assume that the annual
growth rate of the population in the country = 3% every year (every 12 months)
·
This means in 12 months in
which services will be provided, the percentage of pregnant women= 3% of the
beneficiaries’ total number.
So the equation we use to calculate pregnant
women, who will get pregnant care services, is:
Number of pregnant
women= total × 0.03
52800 × 0.03=
1584
So we put the indicator in the logframe as follows:
Indicator 
Target 

# of women who got pregnant care
services 
Men 
Women 
Boys 
Girls 
total 
0 
1584 
0 
0 
1584 
In case the project is educational and we want to implement activities for children in school, aged (618 years), we expect that usually this age group represents at least 20% of the total targeted population. If the targeted district population is 100.000 people, it means that:
Children in school
age = total ×
0.20
100000 × 0.20= 20000
By using the percentage of males and females in the table ( )
concerning beneficiaries’ distribution equation, we can get the number of boys
and girls.
So, we but the indicator in the logframe as follows:
Indicator 
Target 

# of targeted children in school age
(618 years) 
Men 
Women 
Boys 
Girls 
total 
0 
0 
9800 
10200 
20000 
Thus, we do an estimate calculation of the beneficiaries in
all the indicators we put in the project by knowing the estimate percentage of
the beneficiaries according to age group and population census of the country, in which the project will be implemented.
To know the total expected number of the beneficiaries
(males & females) in the project, we use the beneficiaries calculation form
in table ( ) and move all the
indicators of the project to this form. We consider any total number for an
indicator a single count in case it showed up once. While if the same number of
beneficiaries is repeated in some indicators, we take into consideration that it
is a double count. In order to calculate the total number of beneficiaries, we adopt
the unrepeated numbers.
Single and
double count indicator
One of the important things that takes considerable time and
discussion between the applicant organization and the donor while reviewing the
project by the donor and before signing the contract, is to make sure the
beneficiaries number is correct and not doubled.
In view of the difficulty of this matter, we put a form of
calculating beneficiaries to help clarify the single and double count
indicators. The single count indicators are the indicators of which the total
numbers equal the total number of beneficiaries of the project.
Example:
We have 1000 students (male & female) for whom classes
will be built and will be provided with school bags, books and meals.
So we will have 4 indicators in the project:
·
# of students (males &
females) that benefited from the classes that have been built
·
# of students (males &
females) that benefited from the school bags that were provided
·
# of students (males &
females) that benefited from the books that were distributed
·
# of students (males &
females) that benefited from the meals that were provided
So every indicator refers to the same number of students (males
& females) which is 1000 students.
Therefore, we will appoint one of the above indicators as a
single count indicator, while the other three will be double count indicators
because the beneficiaries are the same students.
So the donor knows that we correctly know the number of beneficiaries, as we clarify that we didn’t double the numbers and said that 4000 students will benefit from the project, confirming the number is only 1000 which is the correct one.
Remember:
The total number of beneficiaries in single count indicators must equal the total number of beneficiaries according to the targeted locations and sex.
Indicator 
location 
Men 
Women 
Boys 
Girls 
Total 
Notes 
# of wellsdrilled, constructed or rehabilitated 
Tuban – Lahj 
0 
0 
0 
0 
7 

Yareem – Ibb 
0 
0 
0 
0 
7 


Total indicator 

0 
0 
0 
0 
7 
Double 
# of people that benefited from rehabilitated water resources 
Tuban – Lahj 
627 
653 
941 
979 
3200 

Yareem – Ibb 
627 
653 
941 
979 
3200 


Total indicator 

1254 
1306 
1882 
1958 
6400 
Single 
# of HHs that were provided with ceramic filters for water purification 
Tuban – Lahj 
0 
0 
0 
0 
457 

Yareem – Ibb 
0 
0 
0 
0 
457 


Total indicator 

0 
0 
0 
0 
914 
Double 
# of HHs that their awareness were raised on the rehabilitation,
construction and coverage of latrines 
Tuban – Lahj 
0 
0 
0 
0 
457 

Yareem – Ibb 
0 
0 
0 
0 
457 


Total indicator 

0 
0 
0 
0 
914 
Double 
# of latrines that were
rehabilitated, constructed and covered 
Tuban – Lahj 
0 
0 
0 
0 
457 

Yareem – Ibb 
0 
0 
0 
0 
457 


Total indicator 

0 
0 
0 
0 
914 
Double 
# of awareness sessions conducted on hygiene 
Tuban – Lahj 
0 
0 
0 
0 
220 

Yareem – Ibb 
0 
0 
0 
0 
220 


Total indicator 

0 
0 
0 
0 
440 
Double 
# of HHs that benefited from hygiene kits 
Tuban – Lahj 
0 
0 
0 
0 
457 

Yareem – Ibb 
0 
0 
0 
0 
457 


Total indicator 

0 
0 
0 
0 
914 
Double 
# of volunteers trained to promote for hygiene 
Tuban – Lahj 
11 
11 
0 
0 
22 

Yareem – Ibb 
11 
11 
0 
0 
22 


Total indicator 

22 
22 
0 
0 
44 
Double 
Total beneficiaries ( single count) according to the targeted
district 
Tuban – Lahj 
627 
653 
941 
979 
3200 
Yareem – Ibb 
627 
653 
941 
979 
3200 

Total 
1254 
1306 
1882 
1958 
6400 
Total beneficiaries ( double count) according to type 
Host community 
251 
262 
377 
392 
1282 
IDPs 
1003 
1044 
1505 
1566 
5118 

Total 
1254 
1306 
1882 
1958 
6400 
Beneficiaries’ calculation form
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